For most people. For others, something was missing. You see, the epitome of a perfect recording is not just an incredibly good performance artistically, but also how lifelike it sounds. The first is actually easier to achieve than the latter.
The most lifelike sounding and the very best artistic recording rarely come together. Even today. The very first experiments in binaural reproduction an early form of stereo go back as early as no joke!
At a theater in Paris. The sound was transmitted through two telephone wires to special headsets that received the audio. This was used in hotel rooms and by special subscription service.
But it didn't garner much attention, simply because the tinny headsets and 19th century telephone line quality audio was so bad. An early two-channel playback system, developed and sold in the early s, used a two-channel phonograph cylinder and two mechanical pickups and horns. But it really didn't sound good and the early recordings themselves have been lost to time.
To make stereo sound acceptable on a commercial scale, vast improvements in monaural audio fidelity would have to be achieved. Book Category. Categories : Korn Heavy metal group discographies Discographies of American artists. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Korn in RIAA: Gold . BPI: Silver . Factory Formats: CD. RIAA: Platinum . ARIA: Gold .
ARIA: Gold . Non-album single. Non-album singles. The Crow: City of Angels soundtrack. Spawn: The Album. End of Days soundtrack. XXX: State of the Union soundtrack.
Duets: The Final Chapter. McG   . Joseph Kahn . Fred Durst . Martin Weisz  . The Hughes Brothers  . Sean Dack . Dave Meyers . Nathan Cox . Gregory Ecklund . Andrews Jenkins . Antti Jokinen . Bill Yukich . Little X . Tony Shiff .
Alex Coletti . Vikram Gandhi . In the field of prognostics they are not only able to predict the future values, but also to see the internal relations among input values. Some of them also deliver the explicit mathematical description of the process at the end of the model development. In last two years the subject of my study and experiments are neural networks of two sorts: GMDH and Backpropagation.
And because my study and work is concentrated in the branch of management, I am very excited about the 58 possibilities and benefits that these two neural networks bring in the field of forecasting in strategical management.
It is a neural network architecture of a perceptron type. It can have one layer, but mostly two or three layered backpropagation networks are used, which besides making simple classification tasks, can also solve more complicated problems.
On the following picture there is a three layered backpropagation network. The decision how many neurons should be in each layer expects some experience from the designer, but there are some useful suggestions. All outputs are computed using sigmoid thresholding of the inner product of the corresponding weight and input vectors.
This energetic function is also known as error of the network. At the beginning of the learning process it is recommended to set the weights wi j in the range between An important task is to choose proper training and testing sets of inputs. These sets should be representative for the predicted process. Here is recommended to work on man-machine approach. The operator should appoint the training and testing set of data. In case of GMDH neural network each neuron has only 2 inputs i,j and one output y.
The polynomial 2. In most processes the linear polynomial is sufficient to deliver exact predictions. If the process has a quadratic character, it is reasonable to take the polynomial 2.
The learning process runs together with creation of the network structure. On each layer such number of neurons arise, which corresponds the number of composite combinations of pairs of previous layer outputs.
Then the neurons are configured — in the case of using the 2. The best neurons in sense of external criteria are selected. The process of creating new layers continues until the criteria of quality is reached. The work of GMDH network is described by following diagram: 1. Configuration of k-th layer k is the number of actual created last layer Creating of new neurons in the layer Computing of all six or three, two or four coefficients of the polynome of each neuron.
Selection of neurons of k-th layer 3. Termination of learning of the network 61 3 Impact on the economy of the enterprise Management is an cross-disciplinary science. It uses tools and algorithms taken from many branches of the science in order to ensure the benefit of the enterprise. In the competitive environment it is not possible to raise the benefit by increasing the price for products and services. The way of increasing the benefit is to cut the expenses.
Ill defined problems or fuzzy estimations bring extra costs, because the uncertainty of future evolution of the process make the management to prepare itself for unknown volumes of work, which have to be done. This brings two kinds of extra costs: 1. If the manager underestimates the future value, then there are fewer people and fewer equipment ready for the work as it should be.
This leads to delays, because not all requests from the side of customers could be satisfied in time. If the manager overestimates the future value, then there is too much potential ready for the work. More people were employed, but now they are in stand by status, because there is not as much work to do, as it was expected. Maybe some equipments were rented from other enterprises and this brings extra costs. Exact forecast can prevent this situation. Even, if forecast is always overcast with certain error, using modern neural network based forecasting algorithms can lower this error to minimum and by this it saves a lot of extra costs.
There are values from months of manipulated transport units. These values cover the years from to Following two graphs represent the evolution of the process in the the years and These graphs give initial information about the characteristics of the process.
Graph 1. Manipulated transport units in Graph 2. Manipulated transport units in Manipulated transport units in 0 Manipulated units Manipulated units Manipulated transport units in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 1 Months 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Months In following text three estimations of the montly volumes of manipulated transport units in and in will be compared.
Firstly it is the expert estimation. It is made monthly by a manager of the transportation enterprise. He knows the technology of manipulation with the units. He also knows past values, he knows the general economical situation in the country. These volumes were put into the monthly plan.
It is caused by the character of the process, which is in smoother. To see the benefit of using neural networks in the estimation there should be made the financial expression of the extra costs of every individual way of estimating.
The manipulation costs are 20 Euro. In the case of overestimation, where the estimated value is higher than the real value, the extra costs are enumerated as one fifth of the costs of manipulation. The cost per every underestimated unit will be two fifth of the manipulation costs. In table 2 are values of monthly extra costs of every kind of estimation in Euro.
Table 2. Month Real value I. In the year the savings are smaller, but the saved amount is still very high and it surely pays to use the neural networks prediction algorithms. The higher the level of the management is, the more important is the use of prediction algorithms.
The effectivity of management and the profit of the enterprise can be increased. Therefore it is advisable to invest in sophisticated decision making support systems, where neural network algorithms are implemented. The money invested in such system will surely bring their reward in the future. Summary Managers in their work use sophisticated procedures from many scientific branches.
In order to make good decisions in the stretegic level of management, they can use for predictions relatively new and effective instruments like neural network algorithms GMDH and Backpropagation.
Their contribution is shown in an example from the transportation enterprise. There is a time series with values of manipulated transport units per month.
The expert estimations made by the manager working in the transportation enterprise, which were made on the basis of technological knowledge and experience, were compared with the estimations made by above mentioned neural network prediction algorithms.
In this comparison the benefit of using neural networks is evident. In the hands of a manager the neural networks are a powerful tool to increase the benefit of the enterprise. Literature:  Ivachnenko, A. Pattern recognition and image analysis 3, no. Atmospheric predictability is revealed by naturally occurring analogues. SAMS, Forecasting and Time Series Analysis. McGraw-Hill But a decision can also be more complex, it starts with a difficult personal decision where one has to weigh the outcomes of each alternative until decisions in big organizations which are made for many more than only one individual and which will affect in some cases whole communities or countries.
As you can see, there are many dimensions of decisions and how to meet them. The aim of the essay is to describe first the most common decision making theories and then show some examples of different situations.
Key words: Management, decision making, management decisions, decision support, managerial games. Introduction A decision is seen on one hand as the conscious or unconscious choice by one or more decision makers between different alternatives on the basis of certain preferences. On the other hand it means the process of decision activities which extends over a longer time period.
So the decision is the action before the acting. One has to plan his aims and to consider what to do before making the decision. There is also the alternative of not-deciding, the choice is set to a later point in time, but in this case the alternatives still have to exist.
By means of the results of a certain decision its success can be measured. By reviewing former decisions and analyzing them one can learn of it for future decisions.
An intelligent system or individual can learn by former wrong calculations and can advance to better decisions. Management Decisions In the background of management decision making is less seen as the choice between different alternatives, but rather as a process of creation and enforcing a will in enterprises. The theory of bounded rationality has been mostly accepted among all the other theories. Thus, actions of choice are met on a basis of a simplified model of reality and decisions are made in the individual perception of the decision maker.
As yet said, it is sufficient if the alternatives are satisfying, only in exceptions there has to be found an optimal solution.
If one fails several times in finding satisfying solutions, then the level of aspiration degenerates, and vice versa, if one is successful, then this level rises. Many persons are involved and they are mainly working in groups. Decisions can be differentiated according to the situations in which they are made. The main three types of decisions are the routine decision, the adaptive decision and the innovative decision.
Relatively complex situation 4. Very complex situation 1. Trivial situation 2. An example for this situation may be the handling tabulating and controlling of records or write a weekly news bulletin. The decision is under risk, which means that there are more possible results, whose appearance is determined by objective mathematic and subjective of intuition and experience probabilities.
The problem is similar to a yet known problem, so the decision makers have to consider how the aspects of the solution of the former similar problem can be adapted. An example of this situation is the introduction of new products but in the same product line into the market.
The sales strategy of the yet existing products is known, and so it can be adapted with differences to the new products. If the number of products increases, also the number of production, employees and material increases.
Thus, one has to consider all these 67 aspects, too, and to find procedure programs which also can be adapted from former similar ones to increase these numbers effectively. The situation or problem which is handled tends to change with rising velocity during the decision making process. This happens because there are influences from the external environment for example buying resources from providers, sales of products and services in markets , which also lead to chain reactions, and the factors are dependent on each other.
Another reason is that the problems neither are predictable nor determinable. An example is a sales analyses; it would take too much time and too much costs not efficient to make the complete analyses. So it is sufficient to have incomplete information. But there are some situations where it is not so easy to find sufficiently satisfying solutions. The problem in a complex situation also depends on the past, examples are the deregulation of continental markets or the opening of the East.
But after all, the problems can be described and named by means of their parts which serve for a certain function for example finances, raw materials, immovables, number of employees. Complex situations are unrulable, but they can be coped with. The characteristics of complexity are no complete descriptiveness, less and ambiguous predictability, the product of complicatedness and dynamics.
When the decision makers are in such a situation, they have to implement new solution strategies for the problem, the solution cannot be referred to a former one. Managerial Games In the real world, one of the very natural way of acquiring knowledge in a domain is to be immerged in a situations related to this domain and to practice.
This mode of acquisition the learning by doing while somewhat very efficient for the passing of operational knowledge, is however difficult to implement in the case of a course room. In the context of business education, where the amount of operational knowledge to transmit is very important, two solutions have been found: The business cases where the idea is to have the content of the course directly related to concert and real world situation.
However in this case, the teaching material used for presenting the knowledge remains the text, lectures notes and discussions and second the business simulation games . In this case the idea is to recreate concrete situations but by using a more adapted media than the text and to run simulations. Historically, the first medium to be used was the play card, followed later during the '50 by the use of the computer.
By now, due to the drop of the cost of computer and the explosion of its functionality multimedia, networking , the business games domain and the computer should be definitively associated.
The managerial game is a dynamic training approach which uses a model of the business world as a training device. This technique is also known as business simulations. The purpose of these training tools is to improve employee strategic thinking, finance, ratios, market analysis, operations, teamwork and leadership.
A The scenario-based business simulation is played out in a simulated environment and the learner or user is asked to make decisions on how to act in the simulations. Often multiple choice alternatives are used and the scenario is played out following a branching tree based on which decisions the learner makes. Throughout or at certain intervals feedback is provided. These are similar to role-play simulations. B The numeric simulation can mimic a whole company on a high level or it can be more detailed and mimic specific organizational units or processes.
In a numeric simulation the learner or user makes decisions by pulling levers and dialers as well as through inputting numbers. The decisions are processed and the outcomes are calculated and shown in reports and graphs, e. Feedback is given throughout the simulation or at certain intervals e. Many numeric business simulations include elements of competition against other participants or against computer generated competitors.
The actual use of the managerial simulation games is to help managers improve their skills in decision making. Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice. It can be an action or an opinion. It begins when we need to do something but we do not know what. Therefore, decision making is a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational, and can be based on explicit assumptions or tacit assumptions.
Generally the business decision should be rational and management systems should be set up to allow decision making at the lowest possible level. They provide low cost training and more accurate situations for the managers to work on. The managerial games are based on a model. Management Decision Support by Managerial Games Case Study Imagine you are the owner of a gas station and your best selling product is beer. Every week you sell 4 crates of beer.
Every week you get 4 crates of beer from your supplier. Of course you have stored 8 extra crates in your shop, in case of changing demand. You communicate with your supplier only through your orders and checking the lists when receiving the crates. The time from an order to the supply takes 4 weeks.
In a similar situation is your supplier, he gets the beer crates from a production factory and they also only communicate by ordering lists. In one week, the demand of beer rises from 4 to 8. You order 8 instead of 4 crates.
In the following weeks you order more and more, because your stock is shrinking. Soon you get panic, because the demand is higher then your supply, and one day you are out of beer crates, without having yet received the higher number of ordered crates.
You still keep the number of you orders on a high level e. The week where you ordered 8 instead of 4 crates he himself ordered a slight higher number at the production company. The he receives the higher and higher orders from you, the gas station retailer, and so does he: he orders higher and higher amounts of beer from the production company.
Seeing your high ordered amount and yet not receiving any higher number of beer bottles, he keeps rising his orders to the production company. When the production company receives the higher number of orders, it rises its production, but of course it cannot come along so quickly, because the ordered numbers rise and rise.
So the gap between the ordered and received amounts keeps rising between every one of these three actors. Until one week; when the ordered numbers are caught up. And if you look on the weekly demand in your gas station, the number of 8 crates per week has been staying the same!
So now you and also your provider because you are putting the orders now on a very slow level sit on the too much beer you ordered. This essay showed a very simplified version of the beer game. The dynamics of the situation is not very high; the demand has changed only one time. So, the retailer and the provider both can learn from this situation. For example, they could have started earlier to reduce the number of the orderings, not only at the time, when the big amounts of ordered beer arrived.
In the second part of the essay, I divided the problem situations in trivial, complicated and complex situations and assigned the decision making situations certainty, risk and uncertainty to these three situations, because I think, in most cases they appear together.
Of course, there exist situations, in which the single components are varying, and a situation can be said as complicated, but also yet shows some characteristics of complexity. Take for example the beer game, if the demand of beer had changed every week, and if I had considered other influencing aspects of the outside environment for example other retailers, the changing price of beer, etc , than the situation would be said more as a complex one.
Praha: Grada, The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. The idea can be fulfilled only by taking the priciples of International Public Sector Accounting Standards IPSIAS into national legislation adapting public sector accounting and therefore it is necessary to achieve consequently the project of introduction of unified state accounting and reporting system.
In: www. The city produces a significant amount of household waste: 1. There has been a certain progress in waste collection for the last four years which is due to changes in the form of proprietorship of enterprises.
Up to the end of household waste had been collected by special municipal enterprises which worked in every administrative district of the city. Some minor part of household waste is recycled; it mainly includes paper, metal, textiles and plastic bottles. There used to be several enterprises that undertake in waste collection and recycling. But at present there are only two companies that collect recyclable waste from people and organizations. So in over tones of household waste were recycled and in — less than tones.
So the volume of recycling decreased significantly and waste market loose more than 1 million euro per years. Developing of markets for waste recycles and services improving had been identified as priority policies and should be realized by involving wide range of small and medium enterprises.
At the same time we will realize: Clean — means that all the waste in the city is either properly transported to specially equipped landfills or is recycled. Convenient — means that a well-organized waste collection and transportation system is convenient for the city inhabitants and organizations. Educated — means that people know how they should collect and segregate waste, and also they take part in minimizing its amount.
When it has reached the intended level of household waste treatment our city will have taken a step towards sustainable development and a comfortable life. But only 1. The city occupies a large area - about sq.
The part of the right-bank is cut by a second river — Om. At present there are 2 landfills working in Omsk: Kirovskaya and Leninskaya, which do not fully meet the requirements of environmental legislation. Soviet district landfill was closed in because it did not meet environmental protection requirements. Main characteristics of municipal landfills Landfill Leninsky district landfill Kirovsky district landfill Sovetsky district landfill closed in Start of exploitation Area, hectares 10 The volume of waste that is produced and land filled is increasing.
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