The researchers made CT-scans of specimens from 55 different species, and produced 3D computer models of their larynges. These were studied alongside detailed measurements, including body length and body mass.
The primates ranged in size from a pygmy marmoset Cebuella pygmaea weighing just g, to a Western gorilla Gorilla gorilla weighing approximately kg. The carnivorans spanned from a g common dwarf mongoose Helogale parvula to a kg tiger Panthera tigris.
There is also more variation in larynx size relative to body size among primates, indicating that primates have greater flexibility to evolve in different ways. Carnivorans follow more of a fixed larynx-size to body-size ratio. Larynx size was also found to be a good predictor of the call frequency of a species, which demonstrates the relevance for vocal communication of the observed size variations.
Co-lead author Dr. This is demonstrated by the rich and varied calls produced by many primate species. This provides an exciting avenue for future studies examining variation among other mammalian groups. Bowling, Jacob C. Dunn, Jeroen B. Kitchener, Michaela Gumpenberger, W. DOI: We used to think we had defining traits that only humans have… Tool use was one — not so!
This whole study is flawed. The premiss is that primate species are connected through a linkage based on evolutionary similarities. There is no biological evidence that proves there are any similarities.
Our ability to see physical similarities is a fault of the limited human brain and its juvenile attempt to group like objects together. Unless you are able to show a beneficial hereditary physical mutation within a specific animal type, your premiss of cross species similarities and differences are purely conjecture. So much research is based on this, yet none have been able to produce a single example. But if he is thusly superstitious — and the false premiss seem familiar — what is he doing on a science site?
So why would he be purposefully rude? That is also astounding! Creationists are those who just have given their ignorance a name. As the theory developed, it claimed that producing the full human vowel inventory required a vocal tract with about equally long oral and pharyngeal cavities.
That occurred only with the arrival of anatomically modern humans, about , years ago, and only adults among modern humans, since babies are born with a high larynx that lowers with age.
This theory seemed to explain two phenomena. First, from the s on, several failed experiments had raised chimpanzees in human homes to try to encourage human-like behavior, particularly language and speech. If laryngeal descent is necessary for human vowels, and vowels in turn for language, then chimpanzees would never talk. Second, archaeological evidence of "modern" human behavior , such as jewelry, burial goods, cave painting, agriculture and settlements, seemed to start only after anatomically modern humans appeared, with their descended larynxes.
The idea was that language provided increased cooperation which enabled these behaviors. So if laryngeal descent theory says kids and apes and our earlier human ancestors couldn't produce contrasting vowels, just schwa, then what explains, for instance, Jane Goodall's observations of clearly contrasting vowel qualities in the vocalizations of chimpanzees? But that kind of evidence wasn't the end of the laryngeal descent idea. For scientists to reach agreement, especially to renounce a longstanding and useful theory, we rightly require consistent evidence, not just anecdotes or hearsay.
One of us L. The multidisciplinary team effort has involved articulatory and acoustic modeling , child language research , paleontology , primatology and more. One of the key steps was our study of the baboon "vowel space. Results showed that the vowel quality of certain calls was equivalent to known human vowels.
Our latest review lays out the whole case , and we believe it finally frees researchers in speech, linguistics, primatology and human evolution from the laryngeal descent theory, which was a great advance in its time, but turned out to be in error and has outlived its usefulness.
Human language requires a vocabulary that can be concrete "my left thumbnail" , abstract "love," "justice" , elsewhere or elsewhen "Lincoln's beard" , even imaginary "Gandalf's beard" , all of which can be slipped as needed into sentences with internal hierarchical grammar. For instance "the black dog" and "the calico cat" keep the same order whether "X chased Y" or "Y was chased by X," where the meaning stays the same but the sentence organization is reversed.
Only humans have full language, and arguments are lively about whether any primates or other animals, or our now extinct ancestors, had any of language's key elements. One popular scenario says that the ability to do grammatical hierarchies arose with the speciation event leading to modern humans , about , years ago. Speech, on the other hand, is about the sounds that are used to get language through the air from one person to the next. That requires sounds that contrast enough to keep words distinct.
Spoken languages all use contrasts in both vowels and consonants, organized into syllables with vowels at the core. Apes and monkeys can "talk" in the sense that they can produce contrasting vowel qualities.
In that restricted but concrete sense, the dawn of speech was not , years ago, but some 27 million years ago, before the time of our last common ancestor with Old World monkeys like baboons and macaques. That's over times earlier than the emergence of our modern human form. Researchers have a lot of work to do to figure out how speech evolved since then, and how language finally linked in. Explore further. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.
Read the original article. They are all falsifiable, but so far no credible evidence has been offered to disprove any of them, including evolution. In other words, to have evolution there needs to be a pre-existing gene pool, meaning life already must exist. Some theories attempt to explain the origin of life, notably including the abiogenesis theory. Evolution is not concerned with this question.
If a species is adapted to its surroundings, meaning it can survive and produce another generation, it will remain over time. One species might evolve from another, which is called an ancestral species, but the ancestral species might still be adapted enough to its surroundings to keep existing and surviving.
Moreover, the newer species might go extinct while the ancestral one might survive. Examples include genes encoding proteins that are claimed to have complex yet essential functions, which they could not have evolved from an ancestral gene. Once, the bacterial flagella were presented as evidence for irreducible complexity, until that was debunked as well.
Nowadays, hemoglobin serves as the poster child for this claim. My answer to this claim is simple: separating micro-evolution from macro-evolution is completely misguided.
Similar pairs of species diverged from their last common ancestor fairly recently, whereas other, more different pairs of species diverged further back in history.
Some transitional populations of species exhibit traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group. Much of the information we have about transitional species comes from the fossil record.
Unfortunately, fossils are hard to come by because fossilization is a very rare event that requires many different conditions in a particular order, over time. Still, the fossil record we do have contains many transitional fossils, all of which support evolution.
The working languages of the conference are Russian and English. Simultaneous translation will be offered in English only for plenary sessions. The conference will be organized in the form of plenary and sectional sessions, and poster presentations of the reports. Duration of the plenary report is 30 minutes, sectional reports - 20 minutes, authors of the poster reports will be given 5 minutes for representation of their work.
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Address of conference hall is: Moscow, Yablochkova st. Rooms will be reserved by the participants in Hotel "Molodezhnaya" near the conference hall a few hundred meters away and will be not necessary to use taxi.
The hotel categories range from economic to deluxe class. Address of Hotel: Moscow, , Dmitrovskoe shosse, house 27, Tel. The post address of conference is: Leonid L. The information: Tel.Apr 26, · - "In the evolution of the human vocal tract since the split with other apes, the adult larynx descended to its lower position. Phonetician Philip Lieberman has persuasively argued that the ultimate cause of the human lowered larynx is its function in producing different vowels.