Since secular priests did not take a vow of poverty, they often pursued economic functions like any other member of Hispanic society. In the sixteenth century, the establishment of the episcopal hierarchy was part of a larger Crown policy that in the early period increasingly aimed at diminishing the role of the mendicant orders as parish priests in central areas of the colony and strengthening the role of the diocesan secular clergy. The Ordenanza del Patronazgo was the key act of the crown asserting control over the clergy, both mendicant and secular.
It was promulgated by the crown in , codifying this policy, which simultaneously strengthened the crown's role, since it had the power of royal patronage over the diocesan clergy, the Patronato Real , but not the mendicant orders. The Ordenanza guaranteed parish priests an income and a permanent position. With these competitions, the winners became holders of benefices beneficiados and priests who did not come out on top were curates who served on an interim basis by appointment by the bishop; those who failed entirely did not even hold a temporary assignment.
Wealthy members of society would set aside funds, often by a lien on real property, to ensure Masses would be said for their souls in perpetuity. Although the endowment was for a religious purpose, the Church itself did not control the funds. It was a way that pious elite families could direct their wealth. The crown had significant power in the economic realm regarding the Church, since it was granted the use of tithes a ten percent tax of agriculture and the responsibility of collecting them.
In general the crown gave these revenues for the support of the Church, and where revenues fell short, the crown supplemented them from the royal treasury.
At the same time that the episcopal hierarchy was established, the Society of Jesus or Jesuits, a new religious order founded on new principles, came to Mexico in The Jesuits distinguished themselves in several ways.
They had high standards for acceptance to the order and many years of training. They were adept at attracting the patronage of elite families whose sons they educated in rigorous, newly founded Jesuit colegios "colleges" , including Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo , Colegio de San Ildefonso , and the Colegio de San Francisco Javier, Tepozotlan.
Those same elite families hoped that a son with a vocation to the priesthood would be accepted as a Jesuit. Jesuits were also zealous in evangelization of the indigenous, particularly on the northern frontiers.
To support their colleges and members of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits acquired landed estates that were run with the best-practices for generating income in that era.
A number of these haciendas were donated by wealthy elites. The donation of an hacienda to the Jesuits was the spark igniting a conflict between seventeenth-century bishop of Puebla Don Juan de Palafox and the Jesuit colegio in that city.
Since the Jesuits resisted paying the tithe on their estates, this donation effectively took revenue out of the church hierarchy's pockets by removing it from the tithe rolls.
Many of Jesuit haciendas were huge, with Palafox asserting that just two colleges owned , head of sheep, whose wool was transformed locally in Puebla to cloth; six sugar plantations worth a million pesos and generating an income of , pesos.
Although most haciendas had a free work force of permanent or seasonal laborers, the Jesuit haciendas in Mexico had a significant number of black slaves.
The Jesuits operated their properties as an integrated unit with the larger Jesuit order; thus revenues from haciendas funded colegios. Jesuits did significantly expand missions to the indigenous in the frontier area and a number were martyred, but the crown supported those missions. The Franciscans, who were founded as an order embracing poverty, did not accumulate real estate, unlike the Augustinians and Dominicans in Mexico.
The Jesuits engaged in conflict with the episcopal hierarchy over the question of payment of tithes, the ten percent tax on agriculture levied on landed estates for support of the Church hierarchy, from bishops and cathedral chapters to parish priests.
Since the Jesuits were the largest religious order holding real estate, surpassing the Dominicans and Augustinians who had accumulated significant property, this was no small matter. In , the Spanish crown ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and its overseas territories.
Their properties passed into the hands of elites who had the wherewithal to buy them. The mendicants did not protest their expulsion. The Jesuits had established missions in Baja California prior to their expulsion.
These were taken over by the Franciscans, who then went on to establish 21 missions in Alta California. In the first generation of Spaniards in New Spain, women emigrated to join existing kin, generally marrying. With few marital partners of equal calidad for Spanish men, there was pressure for Spanish women to marry rather than take the veil as a cloistered nun.
However, as more Spanish families were created and there were larger number of daughters, the social economy could accommodate the creation of nunneries for women.
Puebla, New Spain's second largest city, had 11, with its first in ; Guadalajara had 6, starting in ; Antequera Oaxaca , had 5, starting in In all, there were 56 convents for creole women in New Spain, with the greatest number in the largest cities. Sor Juana's Jeronymite order had only 3 houses.
These institutions were designed for the daughters of elites, with individual living quarters not only for the nuns, but also their servants. Depending on the particular religious order, the discipline was more or less strict.
Nuns were required to provide a significant dowry to the nunnery on their entrance. As "brides of Christ", nuns often entered the nunnery with an elaborate ceremony that was an occasion for the family to display not only its piety but also its wealth. Nunneries accumulated wealth due to the dowries donated for the care of nuns when they entered.
Many nunneries also acquired urban real estate, whose rents were a steady source of income to that particular house. In the eighteenth century, the Poor Clares established a convent for noble Indian women. The debate leading up to the creation of the convent of Corpus Christi in was another round of debate about the capacity of Indians, male or female, for religious life.
The early sixteenth century had seen the demise of the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco , which had been founded to train Indian men for ordination. At the same time that the episcopal hierarchy in Mexico first had a secular cleric as archbishop, the tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in to maintain orthodoxy and Christian morality. In , Indians were removed from the Inquisition's jurisdiction. Non-Catholics were banned from emigrating to Spain's overseas territories, with potential migrants needing to receive a license to travel that stated they were of pure Catholic heritage.
However, a number of crypto-Jews , that is, Jews who supposedly converted to Christianity conversos but continued practicing Judaism did emigrate. Many were merchants of Portuguese background, who could more easily move within the Spanish realms during the period — when Spain and Portugal had the same monarch. The Portuguese empire included territories in West Africa and was the source of African slaves sold in Spanish territories.
Quite a number of Portuguese merchants in Mexico were involved in the transatlantic slave trade. When Portugal successfully revolted against Spanish rule in , the Inquisition in Mexico began to closely scrutinize the merchant community in which many Portuguese merchants were crypto-Jews. In , crypto-Jews both living and dead were "relaxed to the secular arm" of crown justice for punishment.
The Inquisition had no power to execute the convicted, so civil justice carried out capital punishment in a grand public ceremony affirming the power of Christianity and the State.
The Gran Auto de Fe of saw Crypto-Jews burned alive, while the effigies or statues along with the bones of others were burned. Although the trial and punishment of those already dead might seem bizarre to those in the modern era, the disinterment of the remains of crypto-Jews from Christian sacred ground and then burning their remains protected living and dead Christians from the pollution of those who rejected Christ.
In general though the Inquisition imposed penalties that were far less stringent than capital punishment. They prosecuted cases of bigamy, blasphemy, Lutheranism Protestantism , witchcraft, and, in the eighteenth century, sedition against the crown was added to the Inquisition's jurisdiction. Historians have in recent decades utilized Inquisition records to find information on a broad range of those in the Hispanic sector and discern social and cultural patterns and colonial ideas of deviance.
Indigenous men and women were excluded from the jurisdiction of the Inquisition when it was established, but there were on-going concerns about indigenous beliefs and practice.
He collected information about Nahuas in what is now modern Guerrero. He came to the attention of the Inquisition for conducting autos-de-fe and punishing Indians without authorirty. The Holy Office exonerated him due to his ignorance and then appointed him to a position to inform the Holy Office of pagan practices, resulting in the Treatise on the Heathen Superstitions.
In , a Nahua, Juan Diego , is said to have experienced a vision of a young girl on the site of a destroyed temple to a mother goddess. The vision became embodied in a physical object, the cloak or tilma on which the image of the Virgin appeared.
This ultimately became known as the Our Lady of Guadalupe. The cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe grew in importance in the seventeenth century, becoming especially associated with American-born Spaniards.
In the era of independence, she was an important symbol of liberation for the insurgents. Although the Virgin of Guadalupe is the most important Marian devotion in Mexico, she is by no means the only one. In the colonial period and particularly during the struggle for independence in the early nineteenth century, the Virgin of Los Remedios was the symbolic leader of the royalists defending Spanish rule in New Spain.
In colonial New Spain, there were several devotions to Christ with images of Christ focusing worship. A number of them were images are of a Black Christ.
In Totolapan , Morelos, the Christ crucified image that appeared in has been the subject of a full-scale scholarly monograph. New Spain had residents who lived holy lives and were recognized in their own communities. One of the martyrs of the Japanese state's crackdown on Christians, San Felipe was crucified. Sebastian de Aparicio , another sixteenth-century holy person, was a lay Franciscan, an immigrant from Spain, who became a Franciscan late in life. He built a reputation for holiness in Puebla, colonial Mexico's second largest city, and was beatified named Blessed in Her status as an outsider and non-white might have affected her cause for designation as holy.
He founded most of the Franciscan Missions of California. Initially, in terms of ecclesiastical matters there were no major changes, but the Bourbon monarchs in both France and Spain began making major changes to existing political, ecclesiastical, and economic arrangements, collectively known as the Bourbon Reforms.
Church-state Bourbon policy shifted toward an increase in state power and a decrease in ecclesiastical. The Patronato Rea l ceding the crown power in the ecclesiastical sphere continued in force, but the centralizing tendencies of the Bourbon state meant that policies were implemented that directly affected clerics.
Bourbon policy also began to systematically exclude American-born Spaniards from high ecclesiastical and civil office while privileging peninsular Spaniards.
The Bourbon crown diminished the power and influence of parish priests, secularized missions founded by the mendicant orders meaning that the secular or diocesan clergy rather than the orders were in charge. An even more sweeping change was the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and Spain's overseas territories in The crown expanded the jurisdiction of the Inquisition to include sedition against the crown.
The crown also expanded its reach into ecclesiastical matters by bringing in new laws that empowered families to veto the marriage choices of their offspring. This disproportionately affected elite families, giving them the ability to prevent marriages to those they deemed social or racial unequals.
Previously, the regulation of marriage was in the hands of the Church, which consistently supported a couple's decision to marry even when the family objected. With generations of racial mixing in Mexico in a process termed mestizaje , elite families had anxiety about interlopers who were of inferior racial status.
More important, however, was the Church's taking the role of the major lender for mortgages. Until the nineteenth century in Mexico, there were no banks in the modern sense, so that those needing credit to finance real estate acquisitions turned to the Church as a banker.
The Church had accumulated wealth from donations by patrons. That capital was too significant to let sit idle, so it was lent to reputable borrowers, generally at 5 percent interest. Thus, elite land owners had access to credit to finance acquisitions of property and infrastructure improvement, with multi-decade mortgages.
The lower secular clergy was significantly affected, many of whom not having a steady income via a benefice, or having a benefice insufficient to support them. The Bourbon monarchy increasingly tried to gain control over ecclesiastical funds for their own purposes.
Most serious for elite creole families was the crown's law, the Act of Consolidation in , which changed the terms of mortgages. Rather than long-term mortgages with a modest schedule of repayment, the crown sought to gain access to that capital immediately. Thus, families were suddenly faced with paying off the entire mortgage without the wherewithal to gain access to other credit.
The Jesuits were an international order with an independence of action due to its special relationship as "soldiers of the pope. Since the Jesuits had been the premier educators of elite young men in New Spain and the preferred order if a young man had a vocation for the priesthood, the connection between the Jesuits and creole elites was close.
Their churches were magnificent, sometimes more opulent than the cathedral the main church of a diocese. Their estates were well run and profitable, funding both their educational institutions as well as frontier missions. The expulsion of the Jesuits meant the exile of their priests, many of them to Italy, and for many creole families connected to the order by placing a son there, it meant splitting of elite families. The establishment of what is now called Nacional Monte de Piedad allowed urban dwellers who had any property at all to pawn access to interest-free, small-scale credit.
The Count of Regla's donation is an example of private philanthropy in the late colonial period. Parish priests and other secular clergy in particular experienced not only loss of status, but loss of income. The crown had created a new administrative regime as part of its civil reforms. In indigenous communities the parish priest, who under the Habsburgs had functioned as a representative of both the Church and the crown, was now supplanted by civil authorities.
Curates could no longer use corporal punishment, manage confraternity funds, or undertake church construction projects without a license from the crown.
The parish priest had often dealt with regulation of public morals, but changes in their powers meant they no longer could mete out punishment for drunkenness, gambling, adultery, or consensual unions without benefit of marriage.
This loss of power and influence in local communities contributed not only to the alienation of the lower secular clergy from the crown, but also began to dismantle the judicial state.
As the crown strengthened its own civil role, it unwittingly undermined the aura of the sacred from its power, so that the monarch became to be viewed more as an oppressive authoritarian rather than a benevolent father figure.
They burst into churches during Mass to arrest Indians, "sometimes shouting obscenities and insulting the priest if he objected. This lower secular clergy was "often accused of leading unruly protests against the acts of royal officials. Having spent decades alienating the lower clergy by its measures, the Bourbon monarchy found itself without priests supporting it, but who participated in the insurgency for independence. Also extremely important in the struggle for independence was the symbolic role of the Virgin of Guadalupe for insurgents, but also the symbolic role of the Virgin of Los Remedios for the royalists.
The insurgency for independence in the period was prominently led by lower secular clerics, but the top levels of episcopal hierarchy strongly condemned it.
When Hidalgo was captured by royalist forces, he was first defrocked as a priest and then turned over to civil authorities and executed. For parish priests, the Bourbon policies of the last 50 years had undermined their authority and distanced the allegiance to the monarch as the patron of the Catholic Church.
Events in Spain again profoundly affected politics in New Spain and on the position of the leaders of the episcopal hierarchy. Following the ouster of Napoleon, Spanish liberals created a constitution for the first time, establishing the monarch not as an absolute ruler but as a constitutional monarchy, subject to a legislature or cortes.
The Spanish liberal Constitution of had many objectionable elements for the clergy in New Spain, even though it pledged in Article "The religion of the Spanish nation is, and ever shall be, the Catholic Apostolic Roman and only true faith; the State shall, by wise and just laws, protect it and prevent the exercise of any other. When Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne, he promised to abide by the constitution, but quickly repudiated it, reasserting Bourbon autocratic rule.
Spanish liberals pushed back and a coup of re-established the constitution. In New Spain, the episcopal hierarchy was highly concerned, since their position would be affected. In the vision it articulated of an independent Mexico, the Plan of Iguala kept the Catholic Church as the exclusive religious institution.
The hierarchy saw the Catholic Church's best interests as being with an independent Mexico where they expected to maintain their power and privileges fueros. Independence was achieved by the very ones who had opposed it. The Catholic Church had judged well, since it emerged "from the struggles for independence as a much stronger power than the state.
The initial period after Mexican independence was not marked by major changes in the role of the Catholic Church in Mexico, but in the mid-nineteenth century Mexican liberals initiated a reform to separate Church and State and undermine the political and economic role of the Church, codified in the Constitution of Mexican conservatives challenged those reforms and a decade of civil conflict ensued.
Mexican liberals were ultimately the victors and began implementing laws passed in the late s curtailing the power of the Catholic Church. The revolutionary Constitution of strengthened anti-clerical laws.
A new Church-State modus vivendi ensued in In , the Mexican constitution was amended to remove most of the anti-clerical elements. Roman Catholicism has remained the dominant religion in Mexico since the colonial era. The nineteenth century saw initial continuity of church-state relations in Mexico, but Mexican liberals increasingly sought to curtail the power and privilege of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Church played a crucial role in achieving it. In the immediate aftermath of the September fall of the Spanish royal government, a Constituent Assembly was created in February to implement the independence plan to a framework for the new sovereign state.
The assembly included priests, so the interests of the Catholic Church were directly represented. Demonstrating the importance of the Catholic Church in the new order, before the assembly convened for the business of creating the governing document of the new state, all went to the cathedral to hear Mass and they took an oath to uphold the exclusivity of Catholicism in Mexico. The Plan of Iguala had provided for a European prince to rule Mexico.
The papacy had ceded the right of appointment and other significant privileges to the Spanish crown via the Patronato Real. But now that Mexico was a sovereign state, the issue was whether that right was transferred to the new national government. This question was a major issue until the Liberal Reforma and the definitive defeat of conservatives in with the fall of the Second Mexican Empire. With the triumph of the liberals, the Catholic Church lost its exclusive standing as the only allowable religion and the Mexican State ceased to assert control over its patronage.
But in the early Republic, established in , the Catholic Church exerted both power and influence and sought to establish its complete independence of civil authority. The emotional apex is actually metaphoric, when the brilliant cameraman Karl Freund finally discovers a gyroscopic process which allows the camera to move. This freedom seems to be the only one Murnau ever found in his life. Shepard returns to the past to show, touchingly, how the sensitive boy never recovered from the loss of his soulmate.
Murnau was ill-suited for survival in Hollywood. With his latest Filipino houseboy at the wheel, he died in a car crash in Post a comment. No comments :. Older Post Home. After pondering to herself about what she should do, she eventually decides to try and find someone else in the town. Armed with a revolver and cleaver to protect herself, she begins to wander through the monster-filled streets of South Vale until she eventually enters the Baldwin Mansion.
Here, she encounters the owner of the mansion, Ernest Baldwin, although she never actually sees him; all their conversations are shared between locked doors. Ernest speaks in a strange monotone, and asks her to find him the "white liquid" in the Blue Creek Apartments to help him bring back his dead daughter Amy. Maria assists him with this, even though she acknowledges it may not work, stating, "I don't mind fighting for an impossible cause".
This could be a reference to her persistence in trying to win James over. After Maria retrieves the "white liquid" for Ernest, he reveals slightly more about Maria to her and tells her about a man named James Sunderland.
He warns Maria that James is a bad man, and that he's looking for "the you that isn't you". This seems to stir something in Maria, who begins to remember things about James. Among these memories is the knowledge that underneath, James is a kind person. Maria then opens the door, but the room where Ernest is in is empty, implying he was a ghost. This could be seen as being somewhat ironic as Ernest may be just as real to Maria as Maria is to James. Disappointed, Maria leaves the Baldwin Mansion and considers suicide, holding her revolver against her head, but refrains and tosses it over a wall.
It is unknown why Maria does this as she is in a monster-filled town; Maria may not trust herself with a weapon, or may want to be dependent on James. Regardless, she decides to follow her fate and walks to Rosewater Park, hoping that James will accept her while whispering his name. James first meets Maria in Rosewater Park; seeing her silhouette in the fog , he mistakes her for Mary. He is taken aback by how much she physically resembles Mary, and her response to this is sultry and somewhat mocking.
As James is about to leave, she then turns clingy, pointing out that there are monsters everywhere and asking if she can stay with him, to which he reluctantly agrees. Maria also knows James's name and says it many times throughout the rest of the game, even though he never told her his name before.
James does not seem to notice this. As seen in Born from a Wish , Maria was told James's name by Ernest; however, she also said she knows James is a "bad man", implying she has at least some of Mary's memories. James enters but Maria stays behind, her excuse being that she "hates bowling". When James returns minutes later, Maria says that she saw Laura run out of the building and insists that James help look for her.
Eventually they follow Laura to Brookhaven Hospital. They explore the hospital together until Maria suddenly becomes sick. James tells her to rest and leaves her in room S3.
If the player checks on her, she will still be there, alive, albeit looking very unwell. Later on, when James traverses into the Otherworld version of the hospital, Maria is nowhere to be found, but several empty medicine bottles are nearby.
Fortunately, Maria bumps into James in the hospital's basement, but she grows angry at James's lack of concern towards her well-being and his devotion to Mary. Maria helps James lift open a heavy fridge door to obtain the lead ring to open the door to the basement.
While being chased through the hospital's basement, James outpaces Maria and makes it to a malfunctioning elevator. As he turns around, he can only look on in horror as Maria is suddenly skewered by Pyramid Head and his spear , killing her almost instantly.
While exploring the labyrinth, James finds Maria alive and perfectly well, although she is locked in a cell. She confuses James by talking to him in a very peculiar manner and behaving in a way similar to Mary, especially when she mentions a videotape in the Lakeview Hotel. She then reverts back to her old self and tries to seduce James, hinting sexual favors if he gets her out of the cell.